Research of liquids

Develop an appreciation of the science behind the formulation of liquids


Soak up information about liquids and their interactions 


Developers of inks, paints, coatings, emulsions, adhesives, and many other high-performing liquids rely on in-depth knowledge of important scientific parameters. Learn more about how to fully evaluate the interaction of liquids with other liquids and solids to create successful end products.

What is your material?

What is your process?


Precision wettability analysis of microscopically small surfaces

Drop Shape Analyzer

Contact angle

When an interface exists between a liquid and a solid, the angle between the surface of the liquid and …



Wettability describes the attempt of a solid to form a common interface with a liquid which comes into …



Spreading describes the expansion of a liquid phase on a second liquid or solid phase (complete wetting). …



Measurement of interfacial tension in a wide range for optimizing emulsions

Spinning Drop Tensiometer

Metal plating

Interfacial measurement techniques for characterizing wetting agents and checking for their concentration

Use Case

Inkjet printing

Optimization of the ink, the printing process and the substrate with surface science methods

Use Case

Interfacial rheology, surface rheology

Interfacial or surface rheology is a branch of interfacial analysis which is concerned with the reaction …


Ultralow interfacial tension in enhanced oil recovery (EOR)

Investigation of a biosurfactant for the environmentally friendly increase of the extraction yield

Application Report


Surfactants are so-called surface-active substances, as they reduce the surface tension of liquids or …



Micelles are aggregates of molecules of a surfactant in a bulk liquid phase.



From one-click wettability measurement to analysis of solid-liquid adhesion

Drop Shape Analyzer

Adhesion on polymers

Contact angle and surface tension for optimizing plastic coatings

Use Case


Wetting and interfacial tension under pressure conditions of reservoir stimulation

Drop Shape Analyzer

Wetting and coating of textiles

Contact angle and surface tension for optimizing the coating of functional textiles

Use Case

Surface treatment of wood

Surface tension and contact angle for optimizing the protection and bonding of wood

Use Case

究竟是静态 or 动态表面张力更能准确评估您的样品?

表面张力作为一项重要的物性数据,在众多应用领域中都有着重要的研究意义。 而液体表面张力又包括静态、动态表面张力,在此次研讨会中,我们将针对表面张力不同测量方法的特点和应用范围进行分析和讨论。


Webinars & Seminars

Interfacial tension

In the broader sense, interfacial tension is defined as the work which must be expended to increase …


Coating of fibers

Methods for monitoring wetting, adhesion and cleaning

Use Case

Paints and varnishes on surfaces

From spreading, adhesion, interfacial tension to the final functions of the finished coating

Use Case


Interfacial analysis for emulsion optimization | SDT

The tendency of emulsions to form and stay stable is characterized by the interfacial tension (IFT). The Spinning Drop Tensiometer – SDT helps to optimize emulsions by precisely measuring very low IFT. Thanks to its fast and easy operation, high degree of automation and flexible temperature control, the SDT takes the spinning drop technique to the next level.

Bubble pressure tensiometer

A bubble pressure tensiometer is an instrument for determining the dynamic surface tension. The maximum …



A microemulsion is an emulsion which forms spontaneously, without mechanical action, from a mixture …


Development of customized demulsifiers

Interfacial rheological measurements on crude oil emulsions

Application Report

Enhanced oil recovery (EOR)

Interfacial technology for efficient oil field exploitation

Use Case

Dispersing of ceramic powders

Interfacial chemistry measuring methods for mineral coatings and coated surfaces

Use Case


Analysis of surfactant solutions for dynamic processes

Bubble Pressure Tensiometer

Hydraulic fracturing

Interfacial chemical support in the exploitation of crude oil and natural gas deposits

Use Case

Surface Science Online Course

Increase your knowledge and update your practical expertise in the field of surface science. Facilitated …


Webinars & Seminars

Wetting of pesticides

Surface chemical optimization for optimum wetting, adhesion and sprayability

Use Case

Froth flotation

Optimization of flotation separation using interfacial chemical methods

Use Case

Polar part

The polar part is that part of the surface free energy of a solid or the surface tension of a liquid …


Coating of metals

Chemical interface measurements for protection, painting and bonding

Use Case

Adhesion on metals

Contact angle and surface tension for the processing of metal surfaces

Use Case

Interfacial rheology of emulsifiers in food

Stability and sensory properties of emulsions and foams

Application Report

Production of cement and concrete

Interfacial chemistry measuring methods for the material behavior before and after setting

Use Case

Drop Watching

Drop Watching is a video-based method developed for inkjet printing for investigating the properties …


Characterization of a versatile emulsifier for low-viscous formulations and liposomal structures

Interfacial analysis of the surfactant polyglyceryl-10 monooleate as part of a comprehensive product …

Application Report

Soldering processes

Contact angle and surface tension as parameters for optimizing soldering processes

Use Case

Production of latex

Investigations into the wetting of immersion molds and into dispersion and emulsion stability

Use Case

Coating of polymers

Methods for measuring wetting and adhesion

Use Case


Analyses in interfacial rheology – time-saving and reproducible

Drop Shape Analyzer

Recovery and processing of bitumen

Measuring methods for the extraction of bitumen and its optimization as a building material

Use Case

Fiber reinforced polymers

Contact angle and surface tension for optimizing the wetting and adhesion between fibers and matrix …

Use Case


A tensiometer is a device for measuring the surface tension of a liquid and/or the interfacial tension …


Offset printing

Quality assurance by means of interfacial chemical investigations of moistening agents, inks and printing …

Use Case

Wetting by alloys

Measurement of contact angle and surface tension of molten metals

Use Case

Drop shape analysis

Drop shape analysis (DSA) is an image analysis method for determining the contact angle from the shadow …



An emulsion is a mixture of substances comprising liquids which are not soluble in one another and in …


Critical micelle concentration (CMC) and surfactant concentration

The CMC (critical micelle concentration) is the concentration of a surfactant in a bulk phase, above …


From an immiscible water-oil system to the ultralow interfacial tension of a microemulsion

Determining IFT in a range of six decades with one and the same instrument

Application Report

Owens, Wendt, Rabel and Kaelble (OWRK) method

The Owens, Wendt, Rabel and Kaelble method is a standard method for calculating the surface free energy …



Analysis for emulsions under dynamic conditions

Drop Volume Tensiometer


High pressure interfacial analysis for flooding methods in EOR

Drop Shape Analyzer


Wetting describes the degree to which a liquid spreads on a solid when it comes into contact with it. …


Inkjet analysis

Next generation drop watching | DSA Inkjet

High quality inkjet printing requires perfect interplay between printing head control and the ink. The Drop Shape Analyzer – DSA Inkjet with its innovative optical system supports you in reaching this goal. By triggering jetting, drop formation is exactly synchronized with the analysis, which gives a vast number of results for the drop’s behavior.


Universal analysis of liquid and solid surfaces | K100

Determining surface and interfacial tension, contact angles, or critical micelle concentration is necessary in many industries. Whether improving surfactants, cosmetics, inks, or pharmaceutical ingredients, the benchmark tensiometer K100 is ready to give you fast and reliable results with a high degree of automation.

Paints, inks and varnishes as liquids

Surface science methods to improve wetting, dispersion stability and foam prevention

Use Case

ADVANCE Software

ADVANCE | Drop Shape

Comprehensive wetting and adhesion analysis requires intelligent and versatile software – like ADVANCE. The software supports every degree of automization up to full software control of surface free energy (SFE) measurement, SFE mapping, or tilting experiments. Using our liquid needle dosing technique, ADVANCE even accesses the SFE within a second.

Drop volume tensiometer

A drop volume tensiometer is an instrument for determining the dynamic interfacial tension. Drops of …


Coating of glass

Quality control of the interface chemistry of glass bonds and treated surfaces

Use Case

DSA Inkjet

Analyzing jetted drops for precision printing

Drop Shape Analyzer

Adsorption coefficient

The adsorption coefficient (adsorption constant) is a measure of the speed at which molecules of a surfactant …



Analyzing phase interactions and transitions at high pressures

Drop Shape Analyzer

Wettability of cosmetic powders and pigments

Interfacial chemistry measuring methods for powder wetting and dispersion stability

Use Case

Work of adhesion

The work of adhesion W12 is the work which must be done to separate two adjacent phases 1 and 2 of a …


Application of surfactants

Interfacial chemistry measuring methods for the research and development of surfactants and their technical …

Use Case

ADVANCE Software

ADVANCE | Adhesion Analysis

The Adhesion Analysis of ADVANCE makes the most of your surface free energy results by calculating scientific parameters for the contact between a solid and a liquid in order assess adhesion. You can also learn how to improve adhesion, for example by increasing the polarity of a material up to the value determined as optimal.

Pendant drop

The pendant drop is a drop suspended from a needle in a bulk liquid or gaseous phase. The shape of the …


Pharmaceuticals and galenics

Interfacial chemical analyses for the production and bioavailability of medicines

Use Case

Surface tension

The work which is required to increase the size of the surface of a phase is referred to as the surface …


Characterization of surfactants

Advanced methods for the investigation of cleaning and wettings agents, emulsifiers, foamers, and more

Use Case

Dynamic surface tension

The dynamic surface tension (SFT) or interfacial tension (IFT) is the value of the SFT or IFT referred …



Versatile automated wetting and adhesion analysis of solids and liquids

Drop Shape Analyzer

Spinning drop tensiometer

A spinning drop tensiometer is an instrument for determining the interfacial tension. Here, a horizontally …



The premium instrument for analyzing surfactants and solid surfaces

Force Tensiometer

Diffusion coefficient

In general, the diffusion coefficient (diffusion constant, diffusivity) is a measure of the rate of …



The automated premium solution for wetting and adhesion analysis of solids and liquids

Drop Shape Analyzer

Sessile Drop

The sessile drop is the standard arrangement for optical measurement of the contact angle using drop …


How waveform, surface tension, and viscosity affect the jetting behavior in inkjet printing

An illustration of basic relationships with the Drop Shape Analyzer – DSA Inkjet

Application Report

Adhesion on glass

Contact angle and surface tension in glass cleaning and coating