• Result of a fully automated CMC measurement with the K100

    Result of a fully automated CMC measurement with the K100

  • Precise interfacial tension measurement using a spinning drop with the SDT

    Precise interfacial tension measurement using a spinning drop with the SDT

ADVANCE | Tensiometers

Combining ease of use with precise surface and interfacial tension measurement

Whether you want to analyze surfactants scientifically, test their use in a specific industrial application or carry out measurements by a standard: your KRÜSS tensiometer and the ADVANCE software make the perfect couple. ADVANCE communicates with the manifold elements and sensors of our instruments for carrying out automated measurements reliably, reducing the necessary manual operations to a minimum.

All raw data and intermediate results of your tensiometric measurement as well as further evaluations are stored in a clear data structure and easily accessible. With the standardization of measurement procedures and parameters as well as the traceability of results to raw data, ADVANCE optimizes repeatability and follows GLP standards.

Method overview

Supporting several instruments in the area of tensiometry, ADVANCE provides a vast number of measuring methods for a wide range of tasks and applications.

Ring SFT

Surface tension using the tensile force of a lamella underneath a ring

Ring IFT

Interfacial tension using the tensile force of a lamella underneath or above a ring

Wilhelmy SFT

Surface tension using the wetting force of a liquid at a platinum plate or rod

Wilhelmy IFT

Interfacial tension using the wetting force of the lighter liquid at a platinum plate or rod

CMC

Automated determination of the critical micelle concentration by measuring the SFT at different concentrations

Spinning drop IFT

Interfacial tension using the diameter or curvature of a drop of a light phase inside a heavy phase in a rotating capillary

Wilhelmy contact angle

Contact angle using the wetting force of a liquid at a solid sample

Sorption

Contact angle between a liquid and powder particles using the capillary force

Surface free energy

Surface free energy of a solid using contact angle data

Liquid density

Density determination of a liquid using the buoyancy of a probe immersed in the sample

Solid density

Density determination of a solid using the buoyancy of the sample immersed in a liquid

Force Tensiometer – K100

The setup of the K100 with a precise force sensor at the top and a sample stage with high position resolution below offers a wide range of measuring options. ADVANCE uses them for a vast number of methods covering and even exceeding the spectrum of interfacial and wetting analysis.

These include, of course, tensiometric methods such as surface and interfacial tension measurement with the Du Noüy ring and Wilhelmy plate or rod method, and measurements of the critical micelle concentration (CMC) using a ring or plate.

In addition to these methods for analyzing liquids, the wettability of solid samples and even powders is measured using the wetting force respectively the adsorption speed. Here, ADVANCE also offers the feature of measuring the contact angle on the coated side of partly coated samples. Results of solid body or powder contact angle measurement with different liquids can be used to calculate the solid's surface free energy with a few clicks, selecting from a large number of scientific models. The density of solids and liquids can also be measured as a special benefit.

Powerful and versatile automation functions

Each software module for these methods comes with automation programs premade for the most common tasks in tensiometry, with instantly usable, yet easily adaptable sequences and parameters. The automation procedures can also incorporate the instrument's stirrer for homogenizing samples, or its ionizer for eliminating static charge. ADVANCE also notices when the doors of the sample chamber get closed so the measurement procedure can continue after manual steps without confirmation. Even highly complex tasks such as fully automated CMC measurement including the creation of the concentration series and the evaluation of the measured curve are no challenge for the versatile automation options of ADVANCE.

Clear and comprehensive result presentation

In the live view tile, the force sensor signal is monitored in parallel to the temperature before and during the measurement. Raw data of force against time and intermediate data such as single surface tension values of a series measurement are collected in clear data tables with an assigned data chart. During the measurement, the standard deviation can be used as a stability criterion in order to automatically continue with the next sample or stop the measurement. End results are listed in a summary with all relevant calculated values and their statistical errors. It just takes a final click and a comprehensive report of your measurement is ready.

Spinning Drop Tensiometer – SDT

The SDT measures the interfacial tension (IFT) between two liquids by analyzing the shape of a drop in a spinning capillary. Contributing to the ease of use of the instrument, ADVANCE takes complete control of its functions to carry out automated measurements and performs precise and reliable image analyses.

Intuitive instrument controls and effective automation programs

The most demanding task of a spinning drop measurement is positioning and keeping the rotating drop in the center of the camera image. ADVANCE makes this easy with intuitive controls for rotating and tilting the capillary and moving the camera along it. Moreover, the automatic Drop Positioning function tracks the drop and keeps it in position so even for long term measurement there is no need for monitoring the measurement and making manual position corrections.

Other functions of the instrument, such as the electric heating as well as stroboscope and background illumination, are also controlled by ADVANCE and can be incorporated in automation programs. For instance, it is possible to use the temperature as a trigger so a measurement can be started automatically as soon as the target temperature is reached.

Powerful image analysis and result management

When it comes to accuracy of interfacial tension (IFT) results, the analysis of images of the rotating drop is the most important part. For this, ADVANCE uses sophisticated algorithms in order to detect the boundary between the drop and the surrounding liquid. Equally reliable is the software’s determination of the image scale, which utilizes an accurately shaped calibration cone in an automated step which is carried out without having to change the setup.

The IFT can be measured by detecting the drop diameter with the classic Vonnegut method, but also using the drop’s curvature with the state-of-the-art Young-Laplace approach for spinning drop analysis. This method requires a much lower rotation speed of the capillary, thus expanding the measuring range for the IFT from very low to very high values.

The result management inside ADVANCE is very comfortable when tracing back results to raw data, i.e. the drop images used for the analysis. Without having to save and organize them separately, images are automatically displayed together with their detected contours just by clicking the corresponding data point. To make the final IFT result available at a glance it is presented in a clear, concluding result summary.

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